Tax Examples: Energy and Environmental Taxes in Europe

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Scandinavian countries, as well as Germany and the Netherlands have implemented carbon and energy taxes. The taxes were referred to as Environmental Tax Reforms (ETRs), with collected revenue subsidizing reductions in income or employment taxes.

There is no EU carbon taxation. Strong opposition from national governments, e.g. U.K., has stymied implementation. The Emissions Trading Scheme, a cap-and-trade program, was introduced in 2005. Its effectiveness is considered undercut by the allocation of too many permits to national governments.