Stabilization Levels: Cost Estimates by Sector

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Fossil fuel combustion is the biggest source of GHG emissions, which indicates that the sectors likely to face the largest costs will be energy supply, transport and industry, as well as buildings, which contribute, directly or indirectly, 40% of total US CO2 emissions.  Climate control policies regulating land use and agriculture, which is the main source of N2O and NH4 emissions, might be appropriate in certain regions of the world, so the cost of climate stabilization might fall on those sectors as well.  For afforestation measures, opportunity cost of land usage tends to be the largest cost component because of its indefinite duration.  Some papers have set the opportunity cost at zero because of either difficulty quantifying or monetizing this opportunity cost or skepticism that the opportunity cost is significant.

Sectoral costs also include industrial leakage, in which industry leaves a country with emissions controls to go to another country without.  Industrial leakage might be reduced by setting standardized global emissions for certain activities in certain sectors that are subject to international competition (e.g., aluminum and steel production).