Low-Carbon Technologies: Materials Recycling and Substitution

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Material recycling involves the reuse of materials previously employed in the industrial sector.  Energy components that can feasibly be recycled without violating environmental disposal and waste requirements include solar cells, phosphorous waste products, and other traditional glass-, metal-, plastic-, and paper-based products. Similarly, materials intended for use in certain processes can be replaced by more energy-efficient products.  Potential material substitutes include wood-plastic composites (made from biodegradable polymers and plant fibers) andiron and carbon composites (produced from low rank coal).