Low-Carbon Technologies: Improved Fuel Efficiency

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Improvements in fuel efficiency depend on changes in vehicle technology, increases in fuel efficiency and decreases in fuel use.  Fuel sources that mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, such as natural gas, electricity, hydrogen, and fuel cells, are becoming popular alternatives in the transportation sector.  Vehicle technologies allowing for the use of such fuels are in various states of research and development.  Hydrogen-based engines, roof-top solar cells and solid oxide fuel cells have garnered specific attention.  Increasing fuel efficiency will require improvements in all stages of the fuel chain, from crude oil recovery and oil refining to fuel distribution.  Changes in vehicle technologies and fuel efficiency will beneficially impact fuel use in the transportation sector.