International Agreements and Cooperation Examples: UNFCCC / Kyoto Protocol - The Clean Development Mechanism

  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /hermes/bosnaweb19a/b696/ipg.chicagoclimateonline/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 906.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_argument::init() should be compatible with views_handler::init(&$view, $options) in /hermes/bosnaweb19a/b696/ipg.chicagoclimateonline/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_argument.inc on line 744.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_style_default::options() should be compatible with views_object::options() in /hermes/bosnaweb19a/b696/ipg.chicagoclimateonline/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_style_default.inc on line 24.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_row::options_validate() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_validate(&$form, &$form_state) in /hermes/bosnaweb19a/b696/ipg.chicagoclimateonline/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_row.inc on line 134.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_plugin_row::options_submit() should be compatible with views_plugin::options_submit(&$form, &$form_state) in /hermes/bosnaweb19a/b696/ipg.chicagoclimateonline/sites/all/modules/views/plugins/views_plugin_row.inc on line 134.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /hermes/bosnaweb19a/b696/ipg.chicagoclimateonline/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 906.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /hermes/bosnaweb19a/b696/ipg.chicagoclimateonline/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 906.
  • strict warning: Non-static method view::load() should not be called statically in /hermes/bosnaweb19a/b696/ipg.chicagoclimateonline/sites/all/modules/views/views.module on line 906.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_validate() should be compatible with views_handler::options_validate($form, &$form_state) in /hermes/bosnaweb19a/b696/ipg.chicagoclimateonline/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 607.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter::options_submit() should be compatible with views_handler::options_submit($form, &$form_state) in /hermes/bosnaweb19a/b696/ipg.chicagoclimateonline/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter.inc on line 607.
  • strict warning: Declaration of views_handler_filter_boolean_operator::value_validate() should be compatible with views_handler_filter::value_validate($form, &$form_state) in /hermes/bosnaweb19a/b696/ipg.chicagoclimateonline/sites/all/modules/views/handlers/views_handler_filter_boolean_operator.inc on line 159.

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), described in Article XII of the Kyoto Protocol, is a controversial mechanism that allows developed (Annex I) countries to fund emissions reduction projects in developing (non-Annex I) countries and count those emission reductions against their own emission targets.  The CDM is the Kyoto Protocol’s primary means of including developing countries in the global emissions reduction project.  Its purpose is to promote sustainable development in developing countries while providing a flexible mechanism by which developed countries can invest in emission reductions more flexibly and efficiently.

The primary issue surrounding the CDM is the issue of additionality: once a baseline from which to measure certified emission reductions (or CERs) is chosen, it is difficult (perhaps impossible) to choose the proper comparison point in the counterfactual world where the CDM did not exist.  Developing countries might behave strategically by deliberately avoiding emission reductions they might otherwise have pursued because of the opportunity to receive CDM funding.  Thus it is unclear whether CDM projects represent bona fide emission reductions; if they do not, then developed countries might be expected to react strategically by over-utilizing CDM reductions, thus undermining the entire Kyoto Protocol.

Other issues include: (1) the manner in which CDM projects taking place today will be incorporated into future international agreements to ensure that reductions are not double counted; (2) the extent to which small-scale projects promote inclusion among otherwise isolated groups; (3) whether deforestation prevention projects, which offer the hope of substantial reductions but which are difficult to monitor and enforce, should be part of the CDM; (4) the extent to which CDM projects aid (via technology transfers, capital investment, job creation, and other means) the host countries; (4) whether the CDM is or will be a catalyst for technological diffusion and/or capacity building; (5) the effect of allowing carbon sequestration and storage projects as part of the CDM; (6) the consequences of most CDM projects being concentrated in China; and (7) the extent to which the CDM improves efficiency by creating flexibility in the emissions reduction framework.